• Lithium is either produced from Brines and Hard rock.
  • Countries like Australia uses Hard rock and Bolvia, chile, Argentina uses Brines to produce lithium. China is the only country which uses both Brines and hard rock to produce lithum.
  • Lithium is sold and used mainly in two forms Lithium carbonate and and Lithium hydroxide.
  • Lithium Carbonate(approximately 19% used in Lithium-ion Batteries) Sourced from Brines.
  • Lithium hydroxide ( approximately 29% in Lithium-Ion Battery) sourced from Hard Rock. This is the preferred form used for long range EVs.

There are four components of lithium-Ion Battery:

  • Cathode– It determines the capacity and voltage of a battery on an average basis. The used of thin layer of Aluminum is used in Frame of Cathode
  • Anode– It allows the current to pass through the external circuit and it releases and stores the lithium-ion. Graphite Anodes is generally used because it does well while Charging or Discharging of Battery.
  • Electrolyte– the movement of Ion-cells depends on it.
  • Separator– It acts as a barrier between the cathode & anode.

Materials used in making Lithium-ion Battery:

  • Lithium-ion- It is a negative electrode.
  • Manganese, Nickel, Cobalt. Graphite- These are positive electrode.

There are 5 technologies used for Li-Ion Battery-

  • Lithium Cobalt oxide– expensive and not used in EV applications.
  • Lithium Nickel manganese cobalt– It has several forms and mainly developed for EV industry, but it may end up being used other battery application.
  • Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum-It uses less Cobalt and high Nickel.It has a good Energy density and Ideal for Evs and portable Electronics. This is the Technology used by Tesla.
  • Lithium Iron Phosphate– It has high power density and safer than other chemistries makes it ideal for electric tools and EVs.
  • Lithium manganese oxide– First used in the EVs and it’s downside is low cell durability compared to other competitive technologies.


Scientists are working to find out the alternative metal for Nickel and cobalt as they are costly and scarce metals. Georgia institute of technology  have been looking into new cathode and electrolytes to replace these metal with lower cost metal fluorides and Solid polymer electrolyte.

Government of India Initiative:

PLI scheme for Advanced chemistry cell worth Rs.18,100 Crore has launched to Incentivize company to manufacture in-house Lithium cells as ‘MAKE IN INDIA’ initiative to substitute import from china that constitutes around 75% of the world in lithium-Ion Manufacturing.

Beneficiary companies under PLI:

TATA Chemicals, Exide Industries, Amara Raja batteries, HBL Power Systems

Source; (EWL Research, Barclays)

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